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При отсутствии англоговорящего roommate или boy/girlfriend очень эффективный метод -
т.н. shadowing или shadow talking - повторение за говорящим (аудио/видео прекрасно подходит)
что называется "след-в-след".
Вначале отставание будет большим, слова будут путаться,
хочется бросить это дело, но упорство даст результат.
Можно для начала использовать кнопку "пауза".
Усваивается все "пакетом" - стилистика, фонетика, грамматика, лексика и пр. компонетны языка.

Хорошо тренироваться на родном языке.

Отдаленно напоминает метод отождествления со своим ишта-деватой,
когда ассимилируются целые комплексы качеств.

На русском не найду информацию, только на английском
(то есть, чтобы это изучить, надо вначале выучить язык)

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Shadow Talking for ESL Pronunciation Practice

I've been asked recently about different ways to work on pronunciation using computers.  This post will outline one simple, yet very effective way to do just that.

Shadow talking or shadow speaking isn't really a new idea.  Language teachers and students have been doing it for years with tape decks.

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The basic way a shadow speaking exercise works is like this:
A student listens to a pre-recorded audio file (a sentence, short paragraph, words for intonation, whatever)
the student then records their own voice trying to get their pronunciation, rhythm, and intonation to match as closely as possilbe to the sample.
if at all possible, both happen at the same time - the student listens, and while listening records their voice repeating (shadowing) the original.  With tape recorders this often required 2 machines: one for playing the listening, and a second for the recording.

To be sure this is a challenging activity, however it can be very valuable in helping students follow intonation and rythm patterns and become more aware of where their own rythm and intonation differs from that of a native speaker.

Doing shadow speaking on computers is simple.  It doesn't require expensive software, and is relatively easy to set up - no more difficult than on a tape.

In order to do it you'll need
some recording software,
some audio playback software - these are included on nearly any computer (windows media player, itunes, etc.)
a microphone & headset, a
the sample audio (which you can make using the recording software).

I'd recommend using a free software called "Audacity".  It is available for both MacOS and Windows.  It is VERY simple to use - pretty much the same as a tape recorder.

Now, you'll simply make the original samples yourself using audacity (or other similar software).  Save it in a common format (like .mp3).   Of course if want you can search the internet for audio files as well.  I just like to have more control over the audio - do as you wish.

Now you'll give the file to your students (email, via the web, on a CD or memory stick).

They will then listen to the audio sample in the playback software that plays audio and record their own voice using audacity.  They will have 2 programs running at the same time - one to play the audio, and one to record their voice.

That is really all there is to it.  Shadow talking is a great and simple way for a language student to improve their overall fluency, rythm, and understandability without a great deal of trouble.

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Tim Murphey (2000) explains three kinds of shadow talking:
1) Complete Shadowing: Teacher (or another speaker) pauses after language chunks that are manageable for students to comprehend and repeat. Students repeat everything they hear, out loud, exactly as they hear it.
2) Partial shadowing: Students repeat key words. They might make grammatical changes, for example, partner A says, 'I play guitar...' can be shadowed by partner B as, 'You play guitar...', perhaps in a softer voice. Alternatively, the speaker doesn't pause and the other student repeats what they can, such as the end of each sentence. Murphey (1998) also refers to this as 'echoing'.
3) Silent shadowing: Students silently repeat in their heads, as much as they are able.

Отредактировано khechari (2012-11-17 21:53:30)


Еще информация по shadowing.

Больше всего там копают японцы, изучающие английский.
Проводятся целые исследования:

http://www.kairyudo.co.jp/general/data/ … /57-03.pdf
http://jalt-publications.org/files/pdf- … roc-15.pdf
http://sprosig.isle.illinois.edu/sp2012 … ion_98.pdf
http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/April2011/a … anishi.pdf

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http://www.quora.com/How-can-I-improve- … in-English

Shadowing has proven to be very effective in improving listening skills. It has certainly worked for me. This is where you listen and repeat back what you hear, trying to use exactly the same stress, speed, and intonation. Even when you do not understand all that you repeat back, it is nevertheless valuable as it involves active listening. You can use the BBC or VOA, a tape, a TV show, or an English-language film for this kind of exercise. Though many people want to make it easy on themselves by choosing listening material where people are speaking slowly and clearly, it is always better to use listening material which uses natural speed and intonation.

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Most people try to improve their listening through passive listening. They listen with no clear objective in mind and with no output--it is as though they are trying to learn a language by osmosis. This is nearly useless. You need to employ active listening. You need to have some objective in mind and have some output at the end of your listening practice for it to be effective. Shadowing is about as active as it can get.

Even when you do not understand everything you are repeating back when shadowing, it is nevertheless helpful, as it refines your ability to listen for the individual words. Too often, when we listen to a foreign language, we tend to tune out what we do not understand. With shadowing, there is no tuning out--you force yourself to listen. In the beginning, you may not understand everything you hear, but nevertheless you will be hearing everything that is spoken. Since listening is the skill people build upon through natural language learning, by forcing yourself to listen in this way, it will help your pronunciation, fluency, and vocabulary as well.

Note that Simul Academy (http://www.simulacademy.com/) in Japan used to base their simultaneous translation course on shadowing (I have no idea if they still use the same curriculum). If you wanted to learn simultaneous translation, you had to first prove that you could repeat back everything you heard exactly, even if you did not understand a word of what was said. Since simultaneous translation puts a high priority on listening rather than other language skills, this shows the value of shadowing. Certainly, Simul Academy is (or was) one of the better language schools.



http://towerofconfusion.wordpress.com/2 … ing-alone/

http://how-to-learn-any-language.com/fo … 3&PN=1

http://www.mezzoguild.com/2011/12/30/la … ng-method/

Expert method: language shadowing

What really got me interested in Alexander Arguelles is his use of the method that he calls shadowing (a method which despite being ascribed to him I’ve been using myself for the last 8 years and termed parroting).

To sum it up succinctly, it’s repeating a portion of native-speaker dialogue verbatim and almost simultaneously, using the target and teaching language transcriptions of the dialogue for reference.

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Instead of me poorly trying to explain what I mean just have a look at Alexander’s demonstration using Mandarin Chinese:

Essentially, you’ve got a native-speaker dialogue playing through your earphones and as you hear it, even if you don’t understand a word of it, you’re repeating the sounds at the same time and using transcriptions for meaning and clarity.

It’s basically learning another language in a way that’s similar to how you learned your first language – repeating sounds exactly as you hear them. It’s the best way not only to master colloquial speech, but accent and intonation as well.

Shadowing is also a training technique used by some conference interpreters.

The importance of talking while walking

Arguelles also emphasizes the importance of walking while doing this, rather than sitting at a desk but in my opinion he doesn’t offer a satisfactory explanation for why this helps. Remember how I talked about automatic and controlled processes in the brain? It’s very difficult to speak a language that you don’t know well while performing another activity (talking while driving for example) and it’s only through lots of practice that you can improve this.

Walking while shadowing language is directly challenging your brain to comprehend new linguistic input and to automate this process.

I’m using this exact same method to teach myself Irish at the moment.

Instead of starting off with a typical, structured product or a grammar book I’ve decided to take real, native-speaker dialogue (several TG4 interviews with people from the Gealtacht and some Ros Na Run episodes on Youtube) and to shadow parts of it repeatedly.

Only after I can imitate sections of the dialogue with accuracy and good accent do I consult the transcription and a dictionary.

I’m deliberately avoiding grammar books and structured programs for a few weeks to see how effective this strategy is by itself.

видео, о котором идет речь в статье:

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http://io9.com/5936123/what-is-the-fast … n-language

Some Weird But Effective Tips From A Guy Who Speaks 50 Languages
One of the most famous language learners alive today is Alexander Arguelles, a linguist who has learned over 50 languages (some of them dead, admittedly) and has developed a couple of techniques that he shares with people online. You can learn all about his techniques on his website — he makes instructional videos available for free — and a lot of people swear by them.

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Here's his famous "shadowing technique," where students listen to the language with simultaneously speaking it out loud and reading along with it in a book. Arguelles describes it like this:

The videos I have made about Shadowing demonstrate and discuss the proper form for using my technique of shadowing or listening to and simultaneously echoing a recording of foreign language audio that accompanies a manual of bilingual texts . . . In order to shadow most effectively, it is important to observe three points:
1. Walk outdoors as swiftly as possible.
2. Maintain perfectly upright posture.
3. Articulate thoroughly in a loud, clear voice.

He also recommends his "scriptorium technique," where students write the language while simultaneously speaking it out loud. He writes:

In order to do this properly, you should:

1. Read a sentence aloud.
2. Say each word aloud again as you write it.
3. Read the sentence aloud as you have written it.

The whole purpose of this exercise is to force yourself to slow down and pay attention to detail. This is the stage at which you should check all unknowns in grammars or dictionaries, although that would have been too tedious to show in the video.

So if you want to learn a foreign language quickly, there are three things to keep in mind. One, you need to pick a language that is reasonable to expect you could master in a few weeks. Two, you need to immerse yourself in it, whether through language classes or discussion groups. And three, try a few tricks where you simultaneously listen to the language and speak it aloud while reading it.

The main thing to keep in mind is that nothing is stopping you from learning a new language. Your brain is ready. You just have to train it right.

Отредактировано khechari (2012-11-17 22:04:48)


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